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Which of the following should be taken to avoid the conflicts between orally negotiated terms before the conclusion of contract and the final written contract?

  • A. Prevailing orally negotiated terms over the final written contract
  • B. Embedding a term excluding all prior oral discussions that are not mentioned in the final written contract
  • C. Finding signs of misrepresentation of the other contracting party
  • D. Avoiding long negotiation

Answer: B


When a written contract is based on oral negotiation, to avoid the conflicts between orally negotiated terms and final written contract, the contract should include an express term that specifically excludes all prior oral discussion. However, orally negotiated terms can be used to interpret the final contract.

This practice (excluding prior discussion) is so common in international commercial contract that UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts have an article (2.1.17) dealing with this.


LO 3, AC 3.1


Which of the following is the reason why liquidated damage clauses are embedded into a contract?

  • A. To penalise the supplier for their wrongdoing
  • B. To avoid argument on correct measure of damage
  • C. Because liquidated damages are the only remedy
  • D. Because compensation will be awarded immediately

Answer: B


Liquidated damages are an amount of money, agreed upon by the parties at the time of the contract signing, that establishes the damages that can be recovered in the event a party breaches the contract. The amount is supposed to reflect the best estimate of actual damages when the parties sign the contract. These usually apply to a specific type of breach, and in construction, it is frequently the failure to complete work on time.

Liquidated damages clauses are usually written as some sort of formula, for example:

Total Contract Price - [(X amount of $ per day) x (number of days late)] Including a liquidated damages clause can provide many benefits, the most important of which is predictability. When setting a predetermined amount of damages, it allows both parties a chance to negotiate and settle on a number they both feel is fair and reasonable.

From the owner's perspective, this acts like a cheap form of insurance against your contractors. In the event of a breach, the owner can immediately calculate the damages without going through the trouble of proving actual damages. Proving actual damages can be a complicated, lengthy, and costly process.

From a contractor perspective, this allows them to analyze the level of risk involved, and schedule appropriately. It also allows them the opportunity to limit the damage claims of the owner.


- Construction Contract Clauses: What Is a Liquidated Damages Clause?

- CIPS study guide page 158-159

LO 3, AC 3.2


Which of the following are reasons why a buying organisation adopts a model contract?

1. Extremely advantageous terms for buyer

2. Correct legal terminology

3. Supplier cannot make variation to the model form

4. Specific to industry

  • A. 1 and 2 only
  • B. 1 and 4 only
  • C. 2 and 3 only
  • D. 2 and 4 only

Answer: D


Advantages for the use of model forms of contract include:

* Helps to reduce the time and cost in contract development, particularly in detailed negotiation of terms and conditions.

* Avoids starting from the beginning each time, avoids" re-inventing the wheel" each time.

* Model contract forms may be widely accepted by both buyers and sellers across the industry or sector.

* Model contract forms are even handed and designed to be fair to both parties in the contract.

* Model contract forms include standard clauses that can be selected or deleted on an as required basis.

* Model contract form's standard clauses are more likely to contain the correct legal terminology without recourse to third party experts.

Disadvantages of this type of contract include:

* Terms may be less advantageous, than may be achieved through negotiations, particularly where there is one party who is much stronger than the other.

* The generic contract may be difficult to adapt to the specific circumstances between two parties.

* Terms may not necessarily include special clauses or requirements to cover a particular or unusual situation.

* Legal advice and input may still be required, particularly where significant variations to the norm are required.

* There may be costs associated with training staff in the detailed application of the model forms of contract.


- D5 Sample QUESTION and answer

- CIPS study guide page 147

LO 3, AC 3.1


Rochdale Ltd is looking for a new IT system to automate some of its operations. In designing the specification, procurement manager supposes that it should be done solely by the IT department who have deep expertise on this matter. Is procurement manager's opinion appropriate?

  • A. No, because designing complex specification could only be outsourced
  • B. Yes, because procurement professional has no expertise in IT sector
  • C. Yes, because designing complex specification would waste procurement manager's time
  • D. No, because challenging the user's demand is the role of procurement

Answer: D


Procurement professionals have a role in challenging specifications. Technical experts can get things wrong and asking naive questions can be useful in bringing these to light. The challenging may include:

- Does the organisation really need these features/functions?

- With this specification, are there many available suppliers in the market?

- How many does the organisation really need?



LO 1, AC 1.1



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